Jul 31, 2013

Kesar - Kumkum

KUMKUM - Crocus sativus,Saffron, Ghusrun, Rakta, Kashmir, Balhik, Kesar


Family :Iridaceae
Latin name : Crocus = name adopted from Theophratus; sativus = cultivated.
English name : Saffron
Sanskrit names : Ghusrun, Rakta, Kashmir, Balhik, Kesar, Kashmiraj, Kumkum, Agneeshekhar, Asrugvar, Shatha, Shonit, Pitaka, Rudhir

Scientific classification:
Crocuses belong to the family Iridaceae. The saffron crocus is classified as Crocus sativus and the autumnal species with flowers of a more delicate shade of lilac as Crocus speciosus. The yellow cloth-of-gold crocus is classified as Crocus susianus, the Dutch crocus as Crocus moesiacus, and the early crocus as Crocus imperati.

Botanical Description :
It is a shrub. Leaves are seen towards the base of the stem and are compactly arranged, flowers - either 2 to 3 flowers are in a bunch or one solitary flower is found besides each leaf, flowers are violet in colour. On every flower, there are 3 yellow coloured stamens. Seeds - the ovary is trilobed and in each lobe many round seeds are found. The stalk of gynaecium is made up of three fibers and each fiber has a red coloured stigma. This is known as kesar. Each flower yields three fibres of kesar and twenty flowers yields 120 mg. kesar. The plant flowers in autumn.

Habitat: it is basically an Asian plant but now it is grown in Spain, Iran and Kashmir.

Chemical composition : It contains a dye, volatile oil 8 to 13.4 %, crocin and picrococin. (Kashmiri kesar is brown, thin, smells like lotus and has a colour similar to that of the rising sun. It is considered to be the best, Balhikaj kesar is thin, whitish and smells like kevada. It is of moderate quality. Parasdeshaj kesar is thick, whitish and smells like honey, It is of inferior quality).

External uses : It improves complexion and hence is used for application on hyper pigmented lesions of the skin. It is also used for apply in headache. Its paste is applied on wounds. For weak eye sight, a mixture of rosewater and kesar is put in the eyes. Its paste is also used in hepatitis. It is useful in nervous debility, migraine, rheumatoid arthritis, pain caused by vata, loss of appetite. liver disorders, heart diseases and blood disorders, Kesar is used in dysuria. It is also useful in impotency, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea and painful labour, It is very useful in small pox. It has also been used as a rejuvenator since ancient, times. (According to Shri Priyavrat Sharma, this plant survives for many years. But my opinion is that it is a very small shrub living for about 1-2 years. I have seen it grown in Kashmir. It hardly achieves a height of 10 to 15 cms. from the ground)

Dosha : Tridosha and kaphavataghna.
Dhatu : Rakta (improves complexion. useful in hyperpigthented spots, liver, blood and heart diseases and small pox), majja (debility), shukra (impotency). rasa (dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea).
Mala : Mutra (useful in dysuria).

Crocus, genus of hardy perennial plants, of the iris family, native to southern Europe and Asia and widely cultivated. Crocuses produce a single tubular flower and grasslike leaves growing from a corm, or underground stem base. Common autumnal species include the saffron crocus, which has a bright lilac flower from which the dye and flavoring agent saffron is made, and a crocus whose flowers are a more delicate shade of lilac. The yellow cloth-of-gold crocus is one of the earliest blooming flowers in temperate climates. Other spring species are the Dutch crocus, which is also yellow, and the early crocus with lilac or white flowers.

Herbalkart is not selling this online. You can buy it in Ebay

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Japa - Sembaruthi

Common Name: Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis 
Sanskrit: Japa
Latin: rosa-sinensis literally means "rose of China"
Marathi: Jaswand 
Bengali: Jaba 
Tamil: Sembaruthi 
Hindi: Gudhal, Gurhal, Japa
Malayalam: Chemparathi 
Oriya: Mondaro 
Sinhala: Wada Mal
Telugu: Mamdaram 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly known simply as hibiscus, or less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. 

The plant has been used in Ayurveda as a remedy for many ailments and diseases such as fevers, menorrhagia, gonorrhoea, blood vomiting, stomachic troubles, irritable geneto-urinary tract conditions, swellings, boils, ulcers and for hair strengthening as well.

The plant today is mainly used as an ornamental one. It can be found in most tropics and subtropics. Gudhal or Hibiscus belongs to the family of Malvaceae. The plant grows to a maximum height of about 2 meters. It is a bushy plant with medium sized leaves- about the size of an average person’s palm. The leaves have serrated tooth-like structure which is entirely harmless. The flowers of the plant are generally red in colour but occasionally, they can be white, yellow and pink as well. The flowers come with five petals and unlike their appearance, the flowers lack scent.

Chemical Constituents:
The bio-chemicals found in Gudhal or Hibiscus plant include β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, taraxeryl acetate and three cyclopropane compounds and their derivatives. Flowers contain cyanidin diglucoside, flavonoids and vitamins, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid (Ghani, 2003). Quercetin-3-diglucoside, 3,7-diglucoside, cyanidin- 3,5-diglucoside and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-5- glucoside have been isolated from deep yellow flowers.

Health Benefits:
Control of diabetes: Diabetes control is perhaps one of the very important health benefits that many people seek. Now, diabetes can be controlled with the use of Gudhal or Hibiscus. The leaf extracts of the plant have been tested to significantly control blood glucose levels.

Lowers hypertension or blood pressure: Blood pressure can be regarded as a cousin to diabetes and it is also equally responsible for a large number of deaths. Control of hypertension is just as important as the control of diabetes. Gudhal leaf extracts have also been tested to be effective against hypertension, as some studies have revealed.

Anti-fertility properties: One of the traditional uses of Gudhal plant has been its use as an anti-fertility agent or contraceptive. Studies have shown that the plant extracts given to lab animals inhibited the fertility and prevented conception. This property can be exploited for the current times as an easy contraceptive, unlike synthetic contraceptive pills which bring in many side effects than stopping pregnancy.

Abortifacient properties: The plant not only possesses anti-fertility properties, but it has also been traditionally used as an abortifacient. Tests on the plant extracts have resulted in eliminating pregnancies in the very early stages.

Stops diarrhoea: The leaves of the plant have been in use in Ayurveda for a long time as a cure for diarrhoea. A paste of the leaves can be taken to completely cure diarrhoea. The presence of spasmogenic and spasmolytic bio-chemicals has been listed as one of the reasons for its use in controlling diarrhoea.

Analgesic or pain-killing properties: The leaf extracts have also showed analgesic properties. Tests on animals with induced pain showed a significant control of pain after administering with the leaf extracts.

Anti-microbial properties: The extracts of Gudhal have shown significant anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. This is perhaps one of the reasons for the plant being used traditionally in Ayurveda for skin diseases, burns and boils to inhibit infections.

For good hair: The use of Gudhal leaves is another traditional therapy for good hair. The leaves are crushed and applied along with soap nut on the scalp for healthy, good looking hair and perhaps to stop hair loss, if used on a regular basis.

How to Use :
Flowers of this plant fried in ghee are give in menorrhagia ; dark-red petals are administered in the form of a mucilaginpus infusion in ardor-urinae, strangury, cystitis and other irritable conditions of the genito-urinary tract ; it is also a refrigerant drink in fevers and a demulcent in cough.. Combined with milk, sugar and cumin the petals or the fresh root juice of the white flowered variety is given in gonorrhoea. Root is valuable in cough. Flowers pounded into a pulp and mixed with water are given with much benefit in gonorrhoea. Expressed juice of the leaves is also given. An oil made by mixing the juice of the fresh petals and olive oil in equal proportions and boiling till the water has evaporated is equal proportions and boiling still the water has evaporated is useful as a stimulating application for increasing the growth and colour of the hair. In china a black dye is prepared from the petals, for the hair and the eye-brows. In fevers, an infusion of the flowers help to reduce body heat.

Medicinal uses and home remedies with Hibiscus

- The leaves when ground to a paste with fenugreek seeds and water, can be used as a shampoo and conditioner for hair.
- 8 to 10 hibiscus flowers soaked in 1 ½ litres of water overnight and consumed three to four times a day for 2 to 3 days (about 2 tbsp at a time) is good for urinary diseases.
- It cools the body and is said to be good for psychiatric ailments.
- Hibiscus is a very effective home remedy for hair loss. To prevent hair loss, the juice of the flowers is mixed with coconut oil and heated till the water evaporates. You can store the oil and apply it on the hair for ½ an hour before a bath.
- A decoction of the hibiscus flower, milk, jaggery and carom seeds is good for leucorrhea.
- About 5 hibiscus flowers ground to a paste, and consumed with water every morning on an empty stomach, for a week before the expected date of periods helps to regularise periods.

Dosage :
1/2 teaspoon before breakfast mixed with some honey or with hot milk.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Charati - Oridhazh Thamarai

Common Name: Hybanthus enneaspermus
Sanskrit: Charati
Ayurvedha Name: Sthalapadhma
Tamil: Oridhazh thamarai
English: Hybanthus
Telugu: Nilakobari
Malayalam: Orilai thamarai
Hindi: Ratna purush

Botanical name of Orithazh Thamarai is Hybanthus Enneaspermus which is a perennial herb or small shrub to 60 cm high. Leaves are linear to lance-like, 1-5 cm long, margins recurved to revolute, occasionally flat; stipules acuminate, 1-4 mm long. Pink-purple spade-shaped flowers occur solitary. Sepals 3-4 mm long. Lower petal broad spade-shaped, pink-purple, with deep purple veins. Also called in different names such as spade flower, pink ladies slipper, munbora, Ratan Purush and it comes under the family Violaceae.

Whole plant is used for Medicinal purposes which is dried in shade & powdered. The teaspoon of this powder is then mixed in milk and taken in the mornings and evenings. This strengthens the body and helps in regaining the lost vitality.Most youngsters due to the pent up sexual urge, ejaculate while asleep. Siddha regards semen as energy and loss of semen is said to weaken an individual. In such cases, the powder of this herb is mixed with honey and taken internally before going to bed. This is said to compensate the loss.

For people who have lost their sexual urge, the powder of this remedy is taken with milk for a mandalam (48 days). This is found to help them in regaining their lost vigour.

Thus oridazh thamarai is an excellent Siddha herb that helps one to regain the lost health.

Another usage includes that the root powder mixed with black pepper and drink to treat urinary disorders.
Leaf juice is mixed with goat’s milk to drink which cure bowel complaints and Fruit is used to treat scorpion sting.

Orithazh Thamarai Chooranam is an excellent Siddha medicine that helps to increase libido, improve the quality of semen and in woman enhances milk secretion.

The plant is reported to possess tonic, diuretic and demulcent properties. The leaves decoction mixed with oil used in preparing a cooling liniment for the headache.

In general, the plant Hybanthus Enneaspermus have been widely used for  stress related disorders.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Harita manjari - Kuppaimeni

Common Name: Acalypha indica 
English: Indian acalypha, Indian nettle, three-seeded mercury 
French: Ricinelle des Indes, oreille de chatte, herbe chatte
Tamil: Poonamayakki, Kuppaimeni
Sanskrit: Harita-manjari
Bengali: Muktajhuri
Gujarati: Dadano
Kannada: Kuppigida
Malayalam: Kuppaimeni
Marathi: Khajoti
Telugu: Kuppichettu

Description :
Common annual shrub in Indian gardens and waste places throughout the plains of India. The leaf petioles are long and slender. The leaves are oval in shape. The numerous tiny maroon coloured flowers are found on several pendulous stalks and hence the common name known as cat tail.

Acalypha indica is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. It occurs throughout tropical Africa and South Africa, in India and Sri Lanka, as well as in Yemen and Pakistan. It has possibly been introduced elsewhere as a weed. In West and East Africa the plant is used as a medicinal plant.It is a common herb growing upto 75 cm tall with ovate leaves. Flowers are green, unisexual found in catkin inflorescence.This plant is held in high esteem in traditional Tamil Siddha medicine as it is believed to rejuvenate the body.

Parts Used : Whole plant

Taste : Bitter, pungent

Actions :
Anodyne, anthelmintic, cathartic, diuretic

Uses :
Ulcers, pain of snake-bite, skin diseases, asthma, pneumonia, rheumatism, scabies, vermifuge. 

How to Use :
The juice extracted from the leaves, mixed with lime and applied on skin to cure diseases caused by Ringworm.Fresh juice of leaves mixed with oil and salt is used for Rheumatoid_arthritis and to cure Scabies. Powdered leaves are used to cure bedsores and infected wounds. The active medicinal compounds like Acalyphine and Triacetoneamine are extracted from this plant.They contain cyanogenic glucoside and alkaloids.The paste of the leaves can be applied to burns.

Leaves posses laxative properties ; "are used as a substitute for senega" ; are used in the form of powder or decoction ; mixed with garlic they are used as anthelmintic in worms. Mixed with common salt they are applied to scabies ; and their juice mixed with oil forms an application in rheumatic arthritis. Powder of dry leaves is used in bed sores. Hakims treat cases of acute mania and hysteria in early stages by the following mode - Take one ounce of fresh juice of the leaves and dissolve in it six grains of common salt ; drop a little of this mixture in each nostril every six hours from morning and then place the patient under cold shower baths for three mornings regularly ; this gives relief from running rose. 

Dosage :
1/2 teaspoon morning and evening mixed with some honey or hot water.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Jul 30, 2013

Bhumyamalaki - Keezhanelli

Botanical Name: Phyllanthus Amarus
Synonyms: Phyllanthus Niruri
Sanskrit: Bhumyamalaki
Hindi: Bhuiamla, Jaramla
Tamil: Keezha Nelli
Kannada: Nila Nelli
Malayalam: Keezha Nelli
Telugu: Nela Usiri

This is a very bitter tasting small shrub that literally means ‘the Amalaki of the earth’ as this very low lying shrub’s leaves resemble the pattern and shape of her somewhat grander celestial namesake.

Bhumi amalaki is a wonderful liver remedy that is also effective for clearing gall and bladder stones.

Energetics :
- Rasa (taste) : Bitter, astringent, sweet
- Virya (action) : Cooling
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect) : Sweet
- Guna (quality) : Dry, light

Actions :
Anti-viral, hepatoprotective, cholagogue, diuretic, lithagogue, alterative, immuno-regulator, anti-tussive, haemostatic. Increases the strength of the liver, Destroys skin diseases, Alleviates itching, Stops coughing

Indications :

LIVER: Its affinity for balancing ranjaka pitta treats viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and it acts as a cholagogue. It is also useful for clearing and preventing gallstones. Human clinical trials attest to the improvement in liver function and alleviation of hepatitis symptoms.

GIT: Its ability to clear aggravated pachaka pitta benefits digestive tract disorders with hyperacidity, inflammation and dysentery.

Skin: Used where the liver is the root of the skin inflammation. 4 It is also applied externally for skin heat, swelling and itching.

Immunity: May be of use in impaired immune disorders; especially viral conditions such as ME, HIV, flu, herpes.

Gynaecology: Used in menorrhagia from high pitta. It clears inflammatory heat from the lower abdomen and this reduces congestion, leucorrhoea and painful urination.

Urinary: It effectively clears stones and gravel for the urinary system. It may have a use in managing diabetes and reducing blood sugar levels.

Combinations :
- Manjishta, Bhringaraja, Kutki, Chiretta in liver disorders.
- Gurmar, Amalaki, Cardamom as part of a diabetic regime.
- Neem, Manjishta, Bakuchi, Turmeric for skin inflammations.
- Chiretta and Guduchi in conditions where the immune system is compromised.
- Manjishta, Gokshura in pelvic inflammatory disorders.

Contraindications :
- Not during pregnancy.

Dosage :
1 – 6g per day dried
1 teaspoon before breakfast mixed with hot water or milk.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Yashti Madhu - Adhimadhuram

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza Glabra
English: Licorice, Liquorice, Sweetwood
Sanskrit: Yashti madhu,Madhuka
Hindi: Mulhatti, Jothimadhu
Tamil: Adhimadhuram
Malayalam: Iratimadhuram
Kannada: Yastimadhuka, Atimaddhura
Telugu: Atimadhuranu, Yashtimadhukam 
Bengali: Jashtimadhu, Jaishbomodhu
Gujarat: Jethimadhu
Marathi: Jeshtamadha 
Oriya: Jatimadhu

Licorice is an expectorant and liquifies mucus, thereby relieving muscle spasms and reducing inflammation.
With ginger it is good for cold. It improves voice, vision, hair, and complexion.

Part used : Roots

Energetics :
- Rasa (taste): Sweet, Bitter
- Virya (action): Cooling
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect): Sweet
- Guna (quality): Heavy (to digest), Moist

Liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra, is a purple and white flowering perennial, native of the Mediterranean region and central and southwest Asia. It is cultivated widely for the sweet taproot that grows to a depth of four feet (1.2 m).  In India, it is cultivated widely in Punjab and the sub-Himalayan tracts. Dried liquorice roots are available in all Indian bazaars.

Hippocrates named the herb glukos riza, or sweet root. The Sanskrit name yashti , meaning ‘stem, stalk; and madhu, meaning ‘sweet’. At all times, liquorice was used less as a spice than as a medicine. Its use against the diseases of the upper respiratory tract dates back to ancient Egypt. The main part of the plant used in medicine is the root. This root is a demulcent and gentle relaxant, soothing to mucous irritations, and valued chiefly for its sweet taste and in masking the sharpness / pungency / taste of other remedies. Ayurveda recommends the root as beneficial in the treatment of coughs, colds, and other bronchial irritations. The root may be chewed as throat lozenges; or prepared as infusions by removing the outer bark and boiling for several minutes, to relieve hoarseness and coughs. During Charaka’s period, it was popular among singers as a lozenge.

Powdered liquorice is also considered by Ayurvedic medicine as an excellent remedy for hyperacidity, and clinical tests prove that it is good for relieving pain, discomfort and other symptoms caused by acid matter in the stomach. It removes the irritating effects of acids in a better way than alkalis. Furthermore, liquiritin, a flavonoid glycoside has been identified has the aglycon liquiritigenin and is spontaneously formed when the root is dried. This is responsible for the spasmolytic effects of liquorice. Vatsayana, Kama Sutra recommends equal quantities of clarified butter, honey, sugar and liquorice be mixed with fennel-juice and milk to stimulate sexual vigor, and as a preservative of life. Liquorice is also known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. This is due to the effect it has on the adrenal glands that are responsible for producing cortisol, the body’s own natural corticosteroid. Glycyrrhizin inhibits prostaglandin production, another component of the inflammatory process.

Glycyrrhizin also exhibits adapto-genic properties by stimulating cortisol production when there is not enough and promoting the breakdown of cortisol when there is too much. Because of this, liquorice is useful to take after stopping prescription of corticosteroids to boost the natural production of cortisol. 

Another adaptogenic effect from liquorice involves estrogen. Liquorice shows mild estrogenic properties similar to other phytoestrogens. It has the ability to promote estrogen production and to interfere with the effects of too much estrogen, especially from external sources. The flavonoid constituents are thought to be responsible for the estrogen-like effects, while glycyrrhetinic acid antagonizes estrogen where there is over-stimulation of estrogen receptors in the body. All this makes liquorice useful in controlling the menstrual cycle and in relieving PMS and menopausal symptoms. One of the drawbacks of liquorice is that it may cause peripheral edema (fluid retention) due to the retention of sodium with a loss of potassium, which disappears when liquorice is stopped. This can cause high blood pressure.

Long-term (more than two to three weeks) intake of products containing more than 1 gram of glycyrrhizin, i.e., the amount contained in approximately 10 grams of root, daily is the usual amount required to cause these effects. Consumption of 7 grams liquorice, which approximately contains 500 mg glycyrrhizin, per day for seven days, has been shown to decrease serum testosterone levels in healthy men by blocking enzymes needed to synthesize testosterone. As a result of these possible side effects, long-term intake of high levels of glycyrrhizin is discouraged, and should only be undertaken if prescribed by a qualified healthcare professional. Consumption of plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables to increase potassium intake is recommended to help decrease the chance of side effects. 

Liquorice is contraindicated in pregnant women as well as in people with liver and kidney disorders. De-glycyrrhizinated liquorice extracts do not cause these side effects because there is no glycyrrhizin in them.

Action : 
Expectorant, demulcent, anti-inflammatory, adrenal tonic, aperient, emetic, sexual potentiser, increases semen, vitalising, Rasayana - benefits all seven tissues, heals ulcers and wounds, benefits the eyes, throat, coughs and breathing difficulties, the nervous system, eliminates itching, alleviates bleeding..

Indications :
Asthma, bronchitis, wheezing. Dry cough with difficult to expectorate phlegm, sore throat, laryingitis, tonsillitis. Specific for vata type cough. Tonic for vata. Also useful in infections with yellow/green sputum, high pitta inflammations.
At high dose it is an emetic used in vamana therapy to clear kapha from the lungs and stomach.

GIT : 
Specific for ulcers- peptic, gastric, duodenal mouth. Useful in all intestinal inflammations and spasms with pain. Hyperacidity. Licorice cools pitta. It is often used for arresting bleeding from the intestines and lungs. Its demulcent nature moistens and relaxes the bowel- helpful in vata/pitta type constipation. At low dose it is anti-emetic (if nausea is caused by heat) and in high doses it is an emetic.

Hepatoprotective action in hepatitis and chronic liver disease. Works on ranjakapitta and soothes the heat that travels via the liver to the blood. Used for skin conditions, such as acne, with heat and inflammation.

As part of a formula for nervous exhaustion licorice is a strong adrenal tonic. Also useful in Addison's disease. Used to tonify an exhausted and hyperactivevata and pitta; ME, CFS. The sattvic nature of licorice calms the mind.

Specifically classified as useful for the quality of the eyes and the skin this action works via its affinity for calming and cooling pitta whilst also nourishing vata. Traditionally used as a detoxicant herb to harmonise a formula and enhance the properties of the other herbs. Its sweet taste gives balya and strength to the whole formula whilst also neutralising any harsh aspects of stronger herbs (eg bitters/ anthelmintics).
Often mixed in ghee to enhance its healing effects on inflammatory mucus membrane conditions.

Contraindications : 
High kapha. Oedema, hypertension. Care in osteoporosis as it inhibits calcium and potassium absorption. It extends the activity of cortisone in the blood. In pregnancy and lactation up to 3g/day is safe. Be wary in long term use.

Dosage :
1 - 10g per day
1/2 to 1 teaspoon morning and evening mixed with warm water or a with some honey

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Jul 28, 2013

Gokshur - Sirunerunjil

Botanical name: Tribulus Terrestris  
Family: Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop family)
Common name: Puncture Vine, Caltrop
Sanskrit: Gokshur
Hindi: Gokharu
Urdu: Gokhru
Bengali: Gokhru kanta
Telugu: Cinnpalleru
Tamil: Nerunjil, Palleru mullu
Malayalam: Nerinji

Tribulus terrestris refers to a herb that has been used in countries like China and India, for centuries, in order to cure disorders that are related to male sexuality. It can also be used to improve a person’s athletic performance, during sporting events. This herb became popular in countries in North America as well as Europe, during the mid 1990s, after claims that were made by some East European athletes, about how taking Tribulus terrestris helped them improve their performance. The main active compounds in the Tribulus terrestris herb are known as steroidal saponins, which can be found mainly in the leaf of the plant.

Puncture Vine is an obnoxious weed whose seeds are incredibly painful to step on, they easilly puncture your bicycle tires, and sometimes have to be pulled out of your pets' paws. It is a taprooted herbaceous perennial plant that grows as a summer annual in colder climates. The stems radiate from the crown to a diameter of about 10 cm to over 1 m, often branching. They are usually prostrate, forming flat patches, though they may grow more upwards in shade or among taller plants. The leaves are pinnately compound with leaflets less than a quarter-inch long. The flowers are 4-10 mm wide, with five lemon-yellow petals. A week after each flower blooms, it is followed by a fruit that easily falls apart into four or five single-seeded nutlets. The nutlets or "seeds" are hard and bear two sharp spines, 10 mm long and 4-6 mm broad point-to-point. These nutlets strikingly resemble goats' or bulls' heads; the "horns" are sharp enough to puncture bicycle tyres and to cause considerable pain to unshod feet.

Tribulus is mentioned in ancient Indian Ayurvedic medical texts dating back thousands of years. Tribulus has been widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of sexual dysfunction and various urinary disorders. The Greeks used Tribulus Terrestris as a diuretic. In China and Vietnam it has been used in the treatment of post-partum hemorrhage, epistaxis and gastro intestinal bleeding. Tribulus terrestris is being promoted as a testosterone booster for the purpose of building muscle and increasing sex drive. It does not work like DHEA, which are progenitors of testosterone. Instead, claims have been made that it enhances testosterone levels by increasing luteinizing hormone levels.

This plant has many common names, including bindii, bullhead, burra gokharu, caltrop, cat's head, devil's eyelashes, devil's thorn, devil's weed, goathead, puncturevine and tackweed.

Parts used: Fruit and root

Actions and uses in ayurveda: vrishyam, dipanam, balya, pushtikaram, hridya, asmri-har, prameh-har, arsh-har, shwas kas-har

Pharmacological action: Diuretic and increases sexual performance

Indications: Tribulus is known to treat conditions affecting the liver and kidney as well as the cardiovascular and immune systems. Tribulus Terrestris is used to treat headaches, eye problems such as itching, conjunctivitis and weak vision, and nervousness. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and rib pain. Gokshur contains Dioscin, protodioscin, diosgenin and similar. These substances have effect on sexual performance and may treat various sexual disorders, they regulate sexual energy level and strength by increasing the percentage of free testosterone level for men and they affect pregnenolone, progesterone and estrogen. The hormone balancing effects of Bulgarian Tribulus Terrestris for women makes this herb suitable for premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome

Properties and action
Rasa: madhur
Guna: guru, snigdh
Vipaka: madhura
Karma: vatanashak, vrsya, brmhana, mutral

Preparations: powder, decoction

Therapeutic index

Digestive system: it is used in diarrhea and dysentery

Reproductive system: it is used to promote lactation.

Skin: it is used in psoriasis and eczema

Genito urinary system: The diuretic properties of plant are due to large amount of nitrates and essential oils present in seeds. Plant and dried spiny fruit is used for spermatorrhea, phosphateuria, dysuria, gonorrhea, gleet, chronic cystitis, calculous affections, incontinence of urine and impotency. It is used in inflammation of urinary passage.

Use of Tribulus Terrestris in angina pectoris: It is shown that saponin of Tribulus Terrestris has the action of dilating coronary artery and improving coronary circulation, and thus has better effects on improving ECG of myocardial ischemia. If taken for a long time, it has no adverse reaction on blood system and hepatic and renal functions. Neither does it have side effects. It is one of the ideal medicines to treat angina pectoris

Use of Tribulus Terrestris in impotency: Tribulus Terrestris is a testosterone enhancer. Studies show that it works very well when stacked with DHEA and androstenedione Instead of being a testosterone precursor, it leads to the production of the luteinizing hormone (LH). When LH levels are increased, the natural production of testosterone also increases. LH is a hormone that also deals with sex drive. Laboratory animal studies found that Tribulus Terrestris increased sperm count as well as motility levels after taking it for 30 days.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Khara Manjari - Naayuruvi

Botanical name: Achyranthes aspera
Sanskrit: Aghata, Khara manjari, Apamarga
Hindi: Chirchira, Latjira, Onga
Bengali: Apang
Gujarati: Safed Aghedo, Anghadi, Andhedi, Agado
Kannada: Uttaranee
Malayalam: Kadaladi; Katalati
Marathi: Aghada; Pandhara-aghada
Punjabi: Kutri
Tamil: Nayuruvi; Shiru-kadaladi
Telugu: Antisha; Apamargamu; Uttaraene

Family: Amaranthaceae
Actions: Diuretic, Astringent, Anti-vatha, Anti-kapha.

Siddha Medicinal Uses :
The decoction prepared from the samoolam of this plant is given for inflammatory condition of the body. It is also a potent diuretic.
The decoction of the roots is helpful to cure abdominal disorders.
The dried powder of the leaves in the dose of 2 to 5 grams is given with honey for diarrhoea.
The dried powder of the roots along with equal amount of Trikadugu choornam is given for cough.
Leaf juice is a helpful remedy given for skin diseases like Prutitis, Scabies etc.
The paste of leaves is applied externally for toxic bites.
Nayuruvi ash is a good remedy for bleeding piles and abdominal problems.

Decoction 30- 50 ml twice daily.20 - 50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Kantakari - Kandankathiri

Botanical Name: Solanum Xanthocarpum
Family Name: Solanaceae
Sanskrit: Kantakari, Nidigadhika
Hindi: Kateli, Katai,Ringani
Bengali: Kantakari
Gujarati: Bhoyaringani
Telugu: Pinnamulaka, Nelamulaka and Vankuda
Tamil: Kandankathiri
Malayalam: Kandankari, Kandankathri
Oriya: Bhejibegun, Ankranti
Punjabi: Kandyali, Mahori, Warumba

Popular Name:
Yellow-Berried Nightshade

Parts Used: Fruits, Whole Plant.

Description Solanum xanthocarpum is a very spiny diffused herb, with a height of up to 1.3 meters. The young branches are densely covered with minute star-shaped hair, while the mature branches are zigzag, covered with yellow, sharp shining prickles and spread close to the ground. The midribs and other nerves of the leaves have sharp yellow prickles and grow up to 10 cm in length. The purple flowers, that are 2 cm long with five petals, can be seen in small bunches, sometimes opposite to the leaves. Kantkari plant bears glabrous, globular drooping berries as fruits, yellow or pale in color, with green veins. The plant is cultivated throughout India.

Uses & Benefits of Solanum xanthocarpum

- Solanum xanthocarpum is useful in treating worms, cold, hoarseness of voice, fever, dysuria, enlargement of the liver, muscular pain, spleen and stone in the urinary bladder.

- Nasal administration of Solanum xanthocarpum is beneficial in migraine, asthma and headache.

- The juice of the berries is used in curing sore throat.

- The fumigation of Solanum xanthocarpum is helpful in piles.

- The herb is made to a paste and applied on swollen and painful joints to reduce the pain and swelling in arthritis.

- Roots and seeds are used as an expectorant in asthma, cough and pain in chest.

- The decoction of the root is given with honey, to treat cough.

- Its stem, flowers and fruits, being bitter and carminative, are used for relieving burning sensation in the feet.

- Solanum xanthocarpum fruits also facilitate seminal ejaculation, alleviate worms, itching, and fever and reduce fats.

- The fruit works as an aphrodisiac in males.

- The herb is helpful in treating respiratory disorders like bronchial asthma, cough and bronchitis

- Its seeds are helpful for treating irregular menstruation and dysmenorrheal in females.

Caution: Solanum xanthocarpum should not be taken during pregnancy.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Vasaka - Adathodai

Common Name: Adulsa, Malabar Nut
Botanical Name: Justicia Adhatoda, Adhatoda Vasica Nees
Sanskrit: Vasaka
Hindi: Adosa, Arusha, Rus, Bansa
Tamil: Adathodai
Malayalam: Atalotakam
Bengali: Adulsa, Bakash,Vasok
Gujarati: Aradusī, Adulso, Aduraspee, Bansa
Kannada: Adusogae
Marathi: Adulsa, Adusa
Oriya: Basanga
Punjabi: Bhekkar
Telugu: Adamkabu, Adampaka, Addasaram

Part used : Leaves

Energetics :
- Rasa (taste): Bitter, Astringent
- Virya (action): Cold
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect): Pungent
- Guna (quality): Light, Dry

Action :
Broncho-dilator, expectorant, alterative, styptic, uterine contractor, alleviates breathing difficulties, prevents bleeding diseases, heart and lungs tonic, anti-asthmatic, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, purifies the blood, reduces fever.

Indications :

It is a specific for respiratory congestion and wheezing. As a powerful bronchodilator it eases breathlessness and bronchiospasm. It clears inflammatory pitta heat and congestive kapha. It can be used where there is inflammation from an allergic response. It clears the lungs and nostrils. As it disperses stagnation and is strongly scatters Pranavayu it can aggravate Vata.

It is eulogised in the Sanskrit literature as superb for stopping bleeding. 
It astringes the mucus membranes and is effective for bleeding from ulcers, metrorrhagia, menorrhagia, epistaxis and the gums.

Its astringency causes contraction of the uterus. 
Useful in bleeding and prolapse.

It is exceptionally powerful and should only be used under the guidance of a herbalist.

Contraindications :
- Pregnancy
- High vata

Dosage :
1/2 to 1 teaspoon per day before breakfast mixed with warm water. 

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Jamun - Naaval Vidhai

Botanical Name: Syzygium cuminii
Telugu: Neredu Pandu
Tamil: Naaval Pazham
Hindi: Jamun
Malayalam: Njaval Pazham
Kannada: Nerale Hannu
Bengali: Jam
Oriya: Jamukoli
Gujarat: Jambu

Common Name: Syzygium cumini is also known as jambul/jambhul/jambu/jambula/jamboola, Java plum, jamun, jaam/kalojaam, jamblang, jambolan, black plum,Damson plum, Duhat plum, Jambolan plum or Portuguese plum. Malabar plum may also refer to other species of Syzygium.

Throughout the plains from the Himalayas to South India. It is tall much branched tree. The berries are dark purple colour when they obtain maturity. Jamun also known as Eugenia jambolana or Java Plum is especially recommended for diabetes.

Benefits and Uses:

- Jamun seeds are astringent refrigerant and cure skin disorders.

- Impairment of liver function associated with diabetes is improved by Jamun seed powder.

- Jamun is also an astringent. Excessive use to fruits causes constipation.

- The fruits and fruit juice are effective in disorders like loss of appetite, indigestion, pain and dysentery.

- Jamun fruit powder is very effective in chronic diarrhea and dysentery.

- In tooth and throat pain, gargling with decoction of bark helps.

Best Recommended Uses:

Jamun seeds powder is recommended in diabetes for better regulation of glucose levels in blood and to prevent diabetic complications.

Dosage :
1/2 teaspoon thrice daily after meals mixed with some honey or with hot water.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Meshashringi - Sirukurinjan

Botanical Name: Gymnema sylvestre
Sanskrit: Meshashringi, Madhunashini, Ajaballi, Ajaghandini,Karnika
Hindi: Gurmar, Merasingi
Bengali: Merasingi
Marathi: Kavali, Kalikardori, Vakundi
Malayalam: chakkarakkolli, Madhunasini
Gujarati: Dhuleti, Mardashingi
Telugu: Podapatri
Tamil: Sirukurinjan
Kannada: Sannagerasehambu

Meshashringi is an herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India and Sri Lanka. Chewing the leaves suppresses the sensation of sweet. This effect is attributed to the presence of the eponymously named gymnemic acids. Meshashringi has been used in herbal medicine as a treatment for diabetes for nearly two millennia.

Meshashringi is a large climber, rooting at nodes. Leaves are elliptic, narrow tipped, base narrow. Leaves are smooth above, and sparsely or densely velvety beneath. Pale yellow flowers are small, in axillary and lateral umbel like cymes. Stalk of the umbel is long. Sepals are long, ovate, obtuse, velvety. Flowers are pale yellow, bell-shaped. Corona is single, with 5 fleshy scales.. The leaves are used to make medicine. It has a long history of use in India’s Ayurvedic medicine. The Hindi name 'Gurmar' means "destroyer of sugar."

Gurmar is a famed plant, revered for its use in treatment of diabetes for nearly two millennia.

Medicinal uses: One of the alternative medicines to both diabetes and obesity could be Gurmar plant preparation, as it known to have a good effect for curbing of diabetes by blocking sugar binding sites and hence not allowing the sugar molecules to accumulate in the body.

Indications : 

Specific herb to increase insulin production in pancreas. 
Helps to regulate blood glucose levels and enhances glucose tolerance.

Best used in combination with other herbs to address the wide spectrum of symptoms caused by diabetes. Beneficial in types 1 and 2 diabetes.

Gastro Intestinal Tract: 
Regulates the craving for sweet food and excessive appetite. Apply drops to tongue every 3 hours. Hence potentially useful in weight loss.

URINARY : Dysuria 
Eating the fresh leaves numbs the taste buds to the sense of sweet or bitter.Hence the name means 'sweet destroyer'.

It also reduces appetite.

Best used over a period of 6 months for lasting results.

Contraindications :
- Not to be used by hypoglycemics.
- Caution in heart conditions as it can stimulate the heart.

Dosage :
5 - 10g per day

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Kanphata - Mudakathan

Botanical name: Cardiospermum halicacabum
Family: Sapindaceae (Soapberry family)
Common name: Balloon Vine, Love-in-a-puff, heart pea, heartseed
Hindi: Kanphata, Kanphuti, Kapalphodi
Marathi: kanphuti, shibjal, kakumardanika
Tamil: kottavan, modikkottan, Mudakathan
Malayalam: Jyotishmati,Uzhinjha
Telugu: buddakakara, ekkudutige, jyotishmatitige, kasaritige
Kannada: agniballi, bekkinatoddinaballi, erumballi, kakaralata
Bengali: Lataphatkari
Oriya: sakralata
Assamese: kapal phuta
Sanskrit: Indravalli, Jyotishmati

Actions : Anti-vatha, Analgesic, Diuretic, Laxative, Stomachic, Anti-inflammatory.
“This medicinal plant act against arthritis, inflammations, constipation and abdominal discomfort”

Siddha Medicinal Uses :- The oil prepared from the leaves acts as a very effective external application for arthritis and other painful conditions of the body.

- 2 to 3 drops of juice of the leaves can be used as a ear drops for ear ache, purulent discharge from ears.
The decoction prepared from the roots can be given for haemorrhoids.
- The leaves can be crushed well, ground and applied over the lower abdomen of the delivered woman. This helps in expulsion of waste products out of the uterus.
- The decoction prepared from the samoolam or whole plant can be given in the dose of 20 to 30 ml for constipation and abdominal discomfort.
- For Anda vatham or (hydrocele) the leaves can be applied as an external paste over the scrotum.
- For any inflammation, the leaves cooked in castor oil is ground and applied over the affected areas.
- For dandruff, the leaves are soaked in water and then crushed well. This water is used in cleaning the hairs. - The oil prepared from the paste of the leaves and gingilly oil can be used as a hair tonic and cure for dandruff.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Amla - Nellikkai

AMLA - Emblic Myrobalan, Emblica officinalis,Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthu emblica

Common Name: Phyllanthus emblica (syn. Emblica officinalis), the Indian gooseberry, 
Hindhi: Aamla,Amla 
Sanskrit: Amalika, 

Aamla is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae. It is known for its edible fruit of the same name.It is one of the strongest rejuvenatives (rasayana) in Ayurvedic medicine. 

Energetics : 
- Rasa (taste) :all tastes but salty, predominately sour
- Virya (energy) : cooling
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect) : sweet 

Actions :
Nutritive tonic, rejuvenative, aphrodisiac, laxative, refrigerant, stomachic, astringent, hemostatic

Indications :
Bleeding disorders, hemorrhoids, anemia, diabetes, gout, vertigo, gastritis, colitis, hepatitis, osteoporosis, constipation, biliousness, weakness of liver or spleen, premature greying or hair loss, convalescence from fever, general debility and tissue-deficiency, mental disorder, palpitation.

Precautions :
- Acute diarrhea, dysentery

Preparation : 
Decoction, powder (250 mg to 1 g), confection, jelly

It is particularly effective as a rasayana for Pitta; for the blood, bones, the liver and the heart. It rebuilds and maintains new tissues and increases red blood cell count. Amalaki cleanses the mouth, strengthens the teeth, nourishes the bones, and causes hair and nails to grow. It improves the eyesight, stops bleeding of gums, and relieves inflammation of the stomach and colon.  It improves appetite, cleanses the intestines and regulates blood-sugar. It is the basis for CHYAVANPRASH, an herbal confection or jelly, that is the main general all-around tonic and restorative in Ayurvedic medicine. It is sattvic in quality and gives good fortune, love and longevity. It is itself a long-living tree. 

Five grams of the powder, mixed in one cup of warm water, can be taken twice a day as a general tonic. It is used as a paste to the head for mental disorders. 

It is the most concentrated source of vitamin in C in the plant Kingdom . 

Its vitamin C has a special form that makes it very easy for the human body assimilate. In addition to this, the vitamin C in Amalaki fruit is prebonded with tannins that protect it from degradation from heat.

Anti tumor activity of amla:
Aqueous extract of amla was found to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in culture in a dose dependent manner. Chyavanprash an herbal preparation of amla was found to reduce ascites and solid tumors in mice induced by DLA cells. Researches confirm the activity of herb on melanoma.

Hepatoprotective activity of amla:
Hepatoprotective activity of amla and chyavanprash were studied on carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced liver injury model in rats. Both were found to inhibit hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCL4. The level of liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate pyruvate- transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was remarkably reduced and so was the fibrosis prevented.

Antioxidant activity of amla:
The antioxidant activity of amla resides in tannoids f fruits of plant, which have vitamin C like properties, rather than vitamin C itself. The antioxidant activity of tannoid active principle of amla consisting of emblicanin A (37%), emblicanin B (33%), punigluconin (12%), and pedunculagin (14%), was investigated on the basis of their effects on rat brain frontal cortical and striatal concentrations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and lipid peroxidation.

Activity of amla in acute pancreatitis:
An increased amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and small condensed granules embedded in vacuole with healthy acinar cells were seen in dogs with acute necrotising pancreatitis.

Effect of amla on serum cholesterol:
It was seen that amla reduces serum cholesterol, aortic cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol significantly in rabbits.

Effect of amla on lipids:
Amla prevents lipid peroxidation in cell membranes therefore is used in obesity.

Amla a source of vitamin C:
It is probably the richest source of vitamin C. the fruit juice contains nearly 20 times as much vitamin C as orange juice. A tannin containing gallic acid, egallic acid and glucose in its molecule and naturally present in the fruits prevent the oxidation of vitamin and renders fruit valuable in vitamin C.

Dosage :
5 to 10 grams per day

Composition :
Emblica officinalis' fruit.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Bael - Vilvam

Common Name: Bel, Beli fruit, Bengal quince, Stone apple, Wood apple
Botanical Name:Aegle marmelos
Sanskrit: Bilva ,Adhararuha, Sivadrumah, Tripatra
English: Bael
Hindi: Bel, Sirphal
Manipuri: Heirikhagok
Marathi: Maredu
Tamil: Vilvam
Malayalam: Koovalam
Telugu: Sandiliyamu
Kannada: Bilvapatre
Bengali: Bel
Konkani: Bello
Urdu: Bel
Gujarati: Bili

Vilvam is a species of tree native to India. It is present throughout Southeast Asia as a naturalized species. The tree is considered to be sacred by Hindus. Its fruits are used in traditional medicine and as a food throughout its range. It is found in India, Burma, and Sri Lanka, often planted in the vicinity of Shiva temples. It grows wild all over the sub-Himalayan forests, central India and its west coast and in dry hilly places ascending to 4,000 ft. high.

It is a medium to large sized deciduous, glabrous and armed tree with axillary and 2.5 cm long spines. Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, crenate, acuminate, membranous and petiololed. Flowers in short axillary panicles, large and scented. Calyx pubescent and four lobed. Petals 4, white and gland dotted. Stamens many. Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20, ovules many, fruit globose, grey or yellowish, rind woody. Seeds many, oblong, compressed, embedded in reddish yellow coloured sweet pulp.

BILVA - Bael, Shivadruma - Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae)

This fruit is a fantastic remedy for the digestive system. Sacred to Lord Shiva it destroys weakness in the intestines. The dried immature part is used for diarrhoea while the mature, fresh fruit is more laxative.

Parts Used : Leaves, fruits 

Energetics :
- Rasa (taste) : Astringent, bitter
- Virya (action) : Heating
- Vipaka (post-digestive effect) : Pungent
- Guna (quality) : Dry, light (immature)

Action :
Astringent, carminative, anthelmintic

Increases the digestive fire, Digests toxins, Alleviator of diarrhoea, Binds stool, Removes swellings, Alleviates colic, Alleviates vata and kapha.

Indications :
Chronic dysentery, diarrhoea, mild laxative, asthma, fever, jaundice, constipation, indigestion, discomfort

Gastro Intestinal Tract: 
Immature dried Bilva is a specific herb for chronic IBS, diarrhoea, dysentery and malabsorption that manifest as long-term imbalances with ‘mucusy’ and watery stools. Its astringency checks the excessive downwards movement of vata. It also dries the excess mucus and ama that comes with high kapha aggravations. It is a good choice where there may be ulceration and inflammation of the mucus membranes in the intestines; ulcers, colitis, Crohn’s disease. The fresh fruit is more of a laxative used in summer to cool the system. It is very heavy to digest and should only be taken in small amounts.

- The immature fruit pulp is best used for diarrhoea. It can be made into a jam and used as a nutritive healer.
- The fruit juice from the ripe fruit is commonly available in India at fruit-juice stalls as a summer cooling drink.
- It is commonly found near Shiva temples as the leaves are used in worship (puja); the juice is said to cool the hot poison that Shiva drank after it emerged from the churning of the milky ocean. It is also a ‘trifoliate’ or trishikha, a leaf having three sections; this also relates to the sacred trident (trishul) that Shiva carried on his itinerant wanderings.
- The root is one of the ingredients in the famous Dasmoola formula. It sedates vata and calms the nerves. It is also used in inflammatory conditions of the uterus.

Medicinal Uses of Bilva Leaves:
Bilva leaves powder is specially useful in diabetes to regulate the blood sugar and minimize diabetic complications.
Bilva leaf juice is put in the eyes and paste of leavess applied over the eyelids.
Bilva  leaves are used  for fomentation in disease condition like swelling pain in ribs.
Bilva leaves alleviates oedema and pain.
Bilva leaves juice is liver stimulant.
Bilva leaf juice mixed with black pepper used in jaundice.

Medicinal Uses of Bilva Fruit:
Bilva fruit powder calms down the extra heat in the body in this way it corrects gastric disturbances like diarrhea, IBS and colitis.
Bilva unripe fruit is an appetizer, digestant and astringet. Ripe fruit is a sweet, mild laxative.
Bilva unripe fruit ground to paste and cooked with sugar is very beneficial in bleeding piles.
Bilva sharbat of ripe fruit pulp can be used as it act as digestive and alleviates diarrhoea.
Bilva fruit (ripe or unripe) useful for prevention of cholera.

Medicinal Uses of Bilva Root:
Bilva is a cardiac tonic, haemostaic and alleviates swelling, hence is root used in cardiac dedillity and palpitation.
Bilva root bark and leaf juice are used to alleviate oedema.
Bilva root alleviates the inflammation of uterus, hence it is used in pregnancy, leucorrhoea and puerperal disorder.
Bilva  root tranquilises the nerves hence it is used in vata disorder, insomnia. Epilepsy and hysteria.

Bilva  root bark, unripe fruit are useful in loss of appetite, diarrheoa, dysentery, sprue, pain in abdomen.

Combinations :
- Bibhitaki, Amalaki, Haritaki to repair the large intestine and encourage regular peristalsis.
- Manjishta, low dose of Rhubarb root if there is bleeding from the GIT.

Dosage :
1/2 teaspoon Leaves powder mix with water before breakfast.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.

Agnidamini - Thoothuvalai

Botanical Name: Solanum Trilobatum
Common name: Purple Fruited Pea Eggplant, Thai nightshade 
Marathi: mothiringnee, thoodalam 
Tamil: Tuduvalai, Nittidam, Sandunayattan, Surai
Malayalam: tutavalam, putharichunda, putricunta, puttacunta, tudavalam
Telugu: alarkapatramu, kondavuchinta, mullamusti
Kannada: Kakamunji, Ambusondeballi
Oriya: bryhoti
Sanskrit: achuda, agnidamani, agnidamini, alarka, vallikantakarika 

Description :
This is a perennial creeper having tri -lobed leaf with thorns on stem and leaf as well. Flowers are purple colour, berries are small and turn red when they matured.

Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, fruit

Taste: Mild bitterness, astringency

Actions: Stimulant, expectorant, tonic

All parts of this common shrub of Southern India are useful in asthma, chronic febrile affections and difficult parturition.

How to Use:
A decoction of the root and leaves is given in consumption. Siddha physicians consider this drug as a specific and prepare a ghee from this for use in tuberculosis, and use as food for all kinds of lung diseases.

1 teaspoon morning and evening mixed with warm water or as advised.

Note: Siddha treatment is based on complete physical examination of the patient, Naadi diagnosis, and other diagnostic criteria of the disease. The content given in this article is purely meant for information and education purpose only. Kindly consult a Siddha physician before any sort of self medication.